Oil and Natural Gas in Russia
According to the Oil and Gas Journal, Russia has proven oil reserves of 60 billion barrels, most of which are located in Western Siberia, between the Ural Mountains and the Central Siberian Plateau. Approximately 14 billion barrels exist on Sakhalin Island in the far eastern region of the country.
| Russia produces almost 7 million
bbl/d of liquids for export, only about 4 million bbl/d can be transported in major trunk
pipelines; the rest must be shipped by rail and river routes. Most of the 4 million
bbl/d transported via alternative routes are petroleum by-products (see
Rail and barge exports of crude oil comprise over 35% of Russian crude oil exports. But unless significant investment flows into expanding the Russian pipeline network's capacity, non-pipeline transported exports are poised to increase even more in the upcoming years.
After Russian oil flows through the various pipelines (Table 1), some crude oil and products are shipped onward to Europe, the United States, and Asia via tanker. The bulk of Russia's oil is shipped to the Mediterranean and to Asia via tankers in the Black Sea, mostly from the port of Novorossiysk.
During 2005, the Russian Energy Ministry expects crude oil exports of around 5.38-5.52 million bbl/d , an increase of up to 7.4% from Ministry estimates for 2004 of 5.14 million bb/d. Under the Ministry's economic forecast, Russian oil exports Under the Ministry's economic forecast, Russian oil exports could grow to around 5.8 million bbl/d in 2007, and up to 6.2 million bbl/d by 2015.
Russia has 41 oil refineries with a total crude oil processing capacity of 5.44 million
bbl/d. However, many of the refineries are inefficient, aging, and in need of
According to the draft plan for economic development during 2005-2008, the reconstruction and upgrading of refineries so that the refineries can convert a higher level of crude will be a priority for future oil refinery
development. The draft forsees continued increases in the production of high quality light oil
products, catalysts and raw material for the petrochemical industry.
Russia holds the world’s largest natural gas reserves, with 1,680 trillion cubic feet (Tcf)--more than twice the reserves in the next largest country, Iran. Accordingly, in 2004 Russia was the world’s largest natural gas producer (22.4 Tcf/y), as well as the world’s largest exporter (7.1 Tcf/y). Russia continues to export significant amounts of natural gas to customers in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), but Gazprom (through its subsidiary Gazexport) has shifted much of its natural gas exports to serve the rising demand in countries of the EU, as well as Turkey, Japan, and other Asian countries. Natural gas exports rose during 2004 from previous years, but the Ministry of Energy expects natural gas exports in 2005 to grow at a slower rate. Last year, Russia exported approximately 7.1 Tcf/y of natural gas, and Russian Energy Ministry data released at the beginning of 2005 forecasted exports of 7.2 Tcf/y for 2005.
Russia has 17 relatively small LNG plants with an aggregate capacity of about 7 million tons. Petrochemical companies consume half of the output. The remainder is exported or used for housing or for transportation demand.
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